Monday, 30 November 2015

The translation equivalence in the transfer of the semantics of language units

Functional-situational aspects of the content statements do not constitute all the information contained therein. The content of the two statements can be different, even if they convey the same objective of communication, describe the same situation using the same General concepts. For the complete identity of their content is necessary to completely coincided their constituent lexical units (words) and syntactic relations between units. Any message is constructed from language units, each of which represents certain information has its own value. The content of the speech does not exist apart from the linguistic units of which it consists, though it is often not fully reducible to a simple sum of these values. Besides the fact that linguistic units in the utterance together Express a functional-contextual aspects of content, they provide the content and additional meaning, which is also included in the transmitted message. In various environments communication to the fore can be a separate semantic elements of speech, and then the choice of words or the syntactic structure plays an important role in the content of the entire message.
If the first three types of equivalence discussed the transfer of elements of meaning which are possible when a significant discrepancy between the linguistic means through which this meaning is expressed in the original and the translation, now we need to find equivalent match the values of language units of the source language. Since the values of units of different languages do not completely coincide, replacing each other the elements of the original and translation, as a rule, are not identical in meaning. However, in many cases the translation can play a significant part of the information contained in language of the original. In the following two types of equivalence the semantic similarity between the original and the translation includes not only the goal of the communication, specifying the situation and the method of its description, but also maximally possible proximity values associated syntactic and lexical units. Here stored information is not only "what", "what" and "what" is said in the text, but partly also "how would you say it".
In the fourth type of equivalence, along with the three components of the content stored in the third type, translated and reproduced a significant portion of the values of the syntactic structures of the original. Structural organization of the original represents certain information included in the General content of the translated text. The syntactic structure of the utterance leads to the use of words of a certain type in a certain sequence and with specific links between individual words, but also largely determines the content, which comes to the fore in the act of communication. Therefore, the maximum possible preservation of the syntactic organization of the original in the translation enhances the reproduction of the content of the original. In addition, the syntactic parallelism of the original and translation provides a basis for correlating the separate elements of these texts, justifying their structural identification of the communicants.
Comparative analysis detects a significant number of transfers have a parallelism of syntactic organization in relation to the original. The use in the translation of similar syntactic structures ensures the invariance of the syntactic values of the original and translation. Especially important is the provision of such parallelism in the translation of texts state or international instruments where the translation often receives the legal status of the original, i.e., both texts being equally authentic, are authentic. The desire to preserve the syntactic organization of the text can easily be detected when comparing the original translations of works of different type, including art. For example, here is a small excerpt from novel by Mark TWAIN "a Yankee at the court of king Arthur" and his translation (TRANS. N. Chukovsky):
One thing troubled me along at first the immense interest which people took in me. Apparently the whole nation wanted a look at me. It soon transpired that the eclipse had scared the British world almost to death; that while it lasted the whole country, from one end to the other, was in a pitiable state of panic, and the churches, hermitages, and monkeries overflowed with praying and weeping poor creatures who thought the end of the world was come. Then had followed the news that the producer of this awful event was a stranger, a mighty magician at Arthur's court; that he could have blown the sun like a candle, and was just going to do it when bis mercy was purchased, and he then dissolved Ms enchantments, and was now recognized and honored as the man who had by his unaided might saved the globe from destruction and its people from extinction.
One thing troubled me at first extraordinary curiosity, which belonged to me. It seemed that all the people wanted me to see. Soon it became known that the Eclipse of Britain howl scared to death that while it lasted, all the country from end to end was covered by boundless terror and all the churches, the monastery and the monasteries were full of praying and crying by people who believe that it is the end of the world. Then found out that this terrible trouble had sent a foreigner, a powerful wizard living at the court of king Arthur, that he could extinguish the sun like a candle, and was going to do, but they besought him to dispel enchantment, and that it should now be read as a person who with his power saved the universe from destruction, and people - from destruction.
The translation of this cut is made by highly qualified translator, skillfully using the wealth of means of expression in the Russian language. The narrative unfolds easily and freely, it is difficult to notice a kind of constraint, subordination of foreign language form, etc. And, in spite of this, you will notice a substantial commonality of the syntactic organization of the source and target languages. The total number of matches. The associated propositions are of the same type, the location, the order of main and subordinate clauses is the same. If the original sentence are homogeneous members, then the translation repeats the same sentence. In most cases, each sentence in the original corresponds to the homogeneous part of the sentence translated, equally situated in relation to other members, etc.
Also interesting paper you should read "The functional status of Anglo-Americanisms in the mirror of Russian press"

To be continued.

No comments:

Post a comment