Monday, 1 February 2016

Do I need to learn English grammar to learn to speak in English

There are two polar opposite opinions: Grammar helps us to speak in a foreign language. Grammar prevents us to speak in a foreign language. And I think they're both right ... Of course, this depends on many factors, but first you need to understand that almost any person can speak a foreign language, without knowing the grammar if it will constantly hear this language and to communicate it ( as it occurs in children).

During his studies (or practice), it should be as isolated from other media (ie, native) language. In this case, our imaginary student will just have to speak. Do you have such conditions? Probably not. At one time I ever met Americans who barely know how to read (there is, unfortunately, and such). Of course, their language had some differences from that spoken by graduates of Oxford or, say, Harvard, but nevertheless, they expressed themselves in English to the envy of many of our compatriots who are learning English for years.

And the children of the British and Americans have 4-5 years to speak English well, not knowing about the existence of some kind of grammar. So can the grammar do not have to teach? American doshkolyatam not exactly necessary. Imagine what would happen if the five-year resident of Chicago's offer to explore the English verb, say, or try to explain why you need the passive voice! I'm not talking about what happens if you come up with such a proposal to any element of the underclass. But we need grammar.

We're with you already adults (and older in this case can be considered all those who passed for 12-14 years). Find a vehicle for intimate conversations, too, it will not be easy. Therefore, learning the language, you need to at least get an idea of ​​how and why you need to read, write and pronounce words and construct sentences. Knowledge of grammar repeatedly accelerates the process of learning the language, because small children that we have mentioned above, only listen to their mother tongue 2-3 years and only then make timid attempts to say.

At the same time an adult, with a certain perseverance and hard work may well speak in a foreign language after 5-6 months of intensive study. On our site you will find a lot of useful and, hopefully, interesting material on English grammar, but all the wisdom we leave at the mercy of a professional philologists and linguists, and have gone on a fascinating journey through the turbulent waters of the English, having plunged them to the depths of the necessary ordinary man in the street. We will dispense with complicated formulas and tricky verbiage. But it seems that it has already begun ... :) Stop! - I say to myself and get down to business.
Our most important task: to explain English grammar as much as possible easy and affordable - so that it is clear, even a housewife.

Sunday, 24 January 2016

Why you should not use to make changes in pencil?

It would seem so conveniently edit pencil made a mistake - and erased, re-written ...

Probably, as convenient. However, a qualified typesetter pencil to type the text will not. And make edits to the file pencil - too.

Rule: text written in pencil, and pencil corrections and additions can not be set.

I do not know how it was before our era, but in Soviet times it  generally respected scrupulously.

In 1985, training courses correctors (in 1970-1980 courses periodically organized at the Moscow polygraphic college) teacher told such a case.

The newspaper "Pravda" corrector are laid out at the read-through strip made an edit pencil. Perhaps out of ignorance or carelessness, or maybe the ink had dried. Who knows?

Typewriting-linotype operator ignored the editing, that is proof-correction in the band has not made ("not poured line", as they said). The rule "is not to gain a pencil" was unshakable. After all, you never know who could strip during movement of proofreading in linotype (dial-up) shop there is something to write, and then, on the way back, delete? Suddenly sabotage or some other event?

Proof, seeing at the next reconciliation newspaper strip that mistakes have been in the paper, and have remained, thought-typesetter linotype operator muddler. Edit corrector repeated, with a pencil again. "Pravdists" -linotipist and this time the pencil edit ignored.

When everything finally revealed the release schedule in the country's main party newspaper had already been disrupted. Final: typesetter acquitted corrector fired. Such here the Soviet case.

Now, of course, times have changed, but as a simple pencil rubbed and erased an ordinary eraser. Accidentally or maliciously - it is another question. Just erased - and no evidence that you are something right. Therefore use the pen.

3. What color ink or paste to make corrections?

Just do not red.

A red ink or paste commonly uses technical editor. They do it before imposition technical layout in print typed text, and then, after layout, wrote in the margins of printed bands for their comments coder.

Author of the same color - such as that of the students: blue, purple, mauve, black.

Rule: text to be set, and the text changes to a set of computer printouts or strips are laid out have to write pen ink (paste), blue, violet, purple or black.

If you still want to highlight the color of your uploads, then these four colors will be enough (for example, if the main text - blue, then add pasta or you can write in black ink).

Monday, 18 January 2016

Pragmatics and pragmatic adaptation translation

Pragmatics - (Ancient Greek. Pragmatos - action) - the section of semiotics that studies the relation of signs and their users in a particular speech situation.

They may have a predominantly intellectual nature, when the text is used for the receptor only source of information on any facts and events that do not concern him personally and did not present it with great interest. At the same time, the received information may have on the receptors and more profound effect. It can affect his feelings cause some emotional reaction, to induce some action. The ability to produce text similar communicative effect, cause Receptor pragmatic attitude to be reported, in other words, to carry out pragmatic effect on the recipient of the information, called the pragmatic aspect or pragmatic potential (pragmatics) text.

Any utterance is created in order to get some kind of communicative effect, so the pragmatic potential is the most important part of the content of the utterance. We conclude that in the translated text plays an important role of its pragmatism. And, therefore, the translator to take care of achieving the desired effect on the receptor, depending on the purpose of transfer or reproducing the original pragmatic potential, or modifying it. It should be emphasized that the relationship between the original and the pragmatics of translation may be different, and not necessarily a pragmatic adequacy of the translation is to maintain the pragmatic source code.

German proposed to distinguish four types of pragmatic relations with the translation of high transferability in a pragmatic sense, it is impossible to reproduce the actual pragmatics of the original translation. This graduation is determined depending on the nature of the original text. Most fully transferred pragmatic orientation of the original, which has the same pragmatic interest to readers of the translation (eg scientific and technical literature). Successfully saved pragmatic potential of the originals, created specifically for the translation (information and other materials intended for foreign audiences). With significant DISABILITIES pragmatic adequacy of the translation of literary works that focus on the source of the receptor, but have something to say to all people. And finally, the originals members of the language community and have no relation to the transfer receptor (legislative documents, socio-political and economic periodicals, various ads and so forth.), Generally can not be transferred pragmatically adequate. Recall that we are not talking about the quality of the translation, but just about the same reaction of readers of the original and the translation. Achieving such equality is not required any translation purpose, and in some cases it is essentially inaccessible due to the nature of receptors translation reaction is impossible to determine the original receptor and several other reasons.

Pragmatics Translation - influence on the course and result of the translation process, the need to reproduce the original and pragmatic potential to provide the desired effect on the recipient.
Pragmatic Adaptation - the changes made to the text of the translation in order to achieve the required response from the recipient.

However, belonging to a different receptor language translation team, a different culture often leads to the fact that the equivalent translation is pragmatically inadequate. In this case, the translator has to resort to a pragmatic adaptation of translation, bringing in their text as necessary. In translation practice, the most commonly used four types of such adaptation.

Wednesday, 13 January 2016

Common mistakes when learning English

Common mistakes when learning English
Learning English - not so complicated and impossible task as it might seem at first glance. In order to achieve the desired success, it is necessary to organize the workflow and try to avoid common mistakes. In this article we will look at the reasons that even the most diligent people do not achieve good results.

Too high expectations

Unfortunately, each of us has a negative impact advertising, most of which is quite absurd. In your city opened a new "super school foreign language", which promises to greatly improve your level in a couple of weeks? You should not believe such a sweet lie: in the short term, you can not learn any English or German or Chinese. Bring their knowledge up to a decent level from scratch can be a minimum of 1 year of enhanced training.

Incorrect setting a goal

If you learn a language just because it is fashionable or "no English way", then you will not be too strong motivation. The real goal - the study of the language for a new and more promising work, a complete change of qualifications, admission to prestigious educational institution (such as abroad), travel. You must clearly understand what benefits you will bring new knowledge.

Focus on grammar

The most popular and dangerous mistake. Studies show that too intensive study of grammar only a negative impact on speech abilities. Why? English Grammar can be difficult to understand the logic and communication in real time is very fast. It turns out that you will not have enough time to recall the memorized hundreds of rules just to speak. It is desirable that you have mastered English grammar subconsciously and intuitively. The best way - is to actively communicate with foreigners and listen to correct English speech.

The study only official English from books

This approach to learning is justified only if you intend to deliver a serious international test. If you simply need to greatly improve their own knowledge, do not forget about other methods. Native English speakers to communicate virtually no use arcane phrases, which you can find in the major textbooks. If you want to succeed, do not forget about learning idioms, phrasal verbs, and even slang.

Too strong commitment to the ideal

And teachers and their students are too often dwell on mistakes and upset because of them. Alas, trying to get closer to the ideal, you forget that even native speakers allow for inaccuracies in his speech. Rather than dwell on the negative, focus on the process of communication and language learning. Your goal - to learn how to transmit their own thoughts so that they are understood by people around. Over time, you will no longer admit past mistakes.

Hope for the school and tutoring

Many people who are learning English, and even rely unduly shift the responsibility on teachers or courses at language schools. This is quite wrong. First of all, it all depends on you. A good tutor only provides necessary assistance. You need to deal with every day, even if your teacher asked you not homework. Only you will be able to bring myself to study seriously.

The study of individual words

Instead of studying individual lexical units need to focus on memorizing ready-made phrases. So how do small children. Remember, you do not memorized as a child-like design «do-did-done»? That's right, you are immediately memorized whole phrases or sentences. In fact, it's quite easy. Best Assistant - reading.

Lack of consolidation of the material studied

In the study of any language should be guided by the rule "less, but better." If you think the phrase you learned yesterday, you can remember a month, most likely, this is misleading. Unused and unneeded information our brain simply discarded. It would be great if you take the time to repeat the studied material several times at regular intervals. For example, the first iteration of a day, the next 3-4 days and one week later. This method allows secure important knowledge in long-term memory and easily "get" them out if necessary.

Premature speaking

Many fans very fast methods of learning foreign languages ​​argue that to begin to speak English need to have from the very first sessions. Now imagine: a child who is just beginning to get acquainted with the speech of others, immediately forced to talk. It is unlikely that this will be something reasonable. Without some store of knowledge you do not get nothing but frustration. That is why competent tutors to focus on student listening to audio produced by native speakers.


Absenteeism, lack of specific training methods, the constant change of coaches - at a pace you will not be able to quickly and efficiently learn English. First, you need to properly plan their time. If you choose to study on their own, then try to make the lessons were at least 3-4 times a week. Better - every day. Otherwise, tangible progress will be difficult to achieve. Second, sign schedule with the exact start and end times of classes. Mark the short-term goals that you are going to achieve in language learning. Stick to the established plan and not skip classes.

Lack of concentration on pronunciation

The fact that the pronunciation of English and Russian language differs, heard each. You can perfectly know grammar to possess a good vocabulary, and even be able to apply this knowledge in practice, but ... speaking with a terrible accent. The reasons for this phenomenon may be disappointing weight: selection of an incompetent tutor, insufficient allocation of time working out the pronunciation, ignoring the audio course, the lack of live communication in English ... The main problem is that over time, eliminate errors of pronunciation is becoming increasingly difficult.

Reluctance to read English

Yes, reading foreign newspapers, magazines and books - a rather difficult task. But there's no need for you to understand literally every written word. It is important to understand the general meaning of the text and study to determine the value of the lexical items in context. Usually text is checked before by proofreading agency .  Regular reading will help you to not only expand their own vocabulary, but also learn how to build your own speech. Without noticing, you learn more than a dozen rules of English grammar. Do not give up cheap (or even free) option practices.

Saturday, 9 January 2016

Teaching a student English.

           In this article we consider in detail the student's teaching methods English. These methods may be useful for parents who want to learn English with their children. Currently, the level of training in regular schools is far from a systematic approach to learning English. In this regard, many parents are turning to private tutors to teach their student or themselves. In this context, we consider how to instill in your student a love of the English language from an early age, as in childhood, the perception is much faster than in the adult. What to do with a student before the English language, the better, because in this age, student absorb all the information.

         First we need to decide to engage the student in English tutor individually or in a group. If we consider the option of training in a group, then the best way would be to combine these exercises with the student of their friends and acquaintances. These classes should be held in small groups of 2-4 people, about two to three times a week. You can do with a student on their own a little bit every day, but this method is less effective. If these options do not suit you, you can simply write the student in an ordinary group of English language courses for student . Such groups today abound. In training a student in school, you need to find a certain approach to the implementation of lessons and tasks as may be reluctance to do homework student . In such cases, the student's interest, or assist in the preparation of homework in English. Then the student has to do the work himself, as if for him to do the job, it will not be any result. In the course of a student's learning English, you will see and understand how it perceives the material, if the perception is going well, it will complete this training watching cartoons in English, read stories, play games, sing songs, you can write mini-vocabulary dictation.

On the Internet there are many useful resources and assignments. It is also necessary to stimulate the student's rewards and ratings system, as this will give a direction to the student's desire to learn. To devote more time to communicate with the student. Control his knowledge gained during the training, organize joint meetings with families whose student are also learning English. Communicate with teachers and tutors of the English language that would optimize your student's learning. If possible, visit the English-speaking country where the student will be able to immerse themselves in the language. In the host country more time to spend on excursions and exhibitions, thus you are interested in the culture of English-speaking country of the child that will stimulate his interest in learning English. With this method of training is very important to capture the student's attention on aspects such as style of speech, grammar, various figures of speech, it's important in the formation of speaking, the foundation is laid for the future. When a little student begins to develop spoken language, you need to move on to more serious course and methods for the study of the English language, which will provide the fundamental direction in understanding the basics of the English language.
           Identifies important principles of teaching student English. In order to achieve a certain result, you need to practice the basic techniques of teaching student English. Namely:

      - In the results obtained with the effective teaching requires naturalness. The student should be interested in learning English. No need to make it all should take place without pressure.

     - Next, the method of binding sequences that do not need to do much bias on English grammar, forcing him to teach him the rules unclear. We need to start slowly: learning words and phrases to listen in English. Everything should be consistently and gradually.

    - It is necessary to remember about the persistence - if the process has already begun training with the baby, you need to persevere more, even if you do not see more concrete results. It is necessary to analyze the different methods of teaching to the child and then maybe there will be the necessary results.

         The process of teaching student English language requires a great deal of patience and effort, as interest and captivate the student at various teaching methods, it is very important in the direction of its future development. Upon reaching the desired results need to constantly work repetition, and what you have learned, is one aspect of success. The most interesting option consolidate the material - a game in English. Consider five simple games in English. At the stage of learning school age student in the classroom can become tired and are not interested. This may result in lack of interest in the subject, fatigue classes or thoughts are not in English. In such a case the best option cheer lesson is a game for 15-20 minutes. You do not need special training, but will strengthen the interest in the study of the planned material.
       The first game - called 20 questions. This game is that one of the student must think the word, and the rest must find out what that word by asking leading questions, which the student can answer "yes" or "no." In this game it is best to designate certain subjects and to harmonize with the student to guess words that are somehow associated with the topic. This game allows you to guess the words and whole phrases that denote a well-known object or phenomenon. This game allows children to overcome difficulties in the preparation of issues - especially with word order and the auxiliaries, and this version of the game helps to improve knowledge of English language learning.
      The second game - a race board. In this game a group of student is divided into teams and the larger the group, the merrier. Next, you need to divide the board into pieces - each team a corner. Next you need to specify some topic that may topic you were at the last lesson. Each team on their side of the board is to write as many words on this topic. This game is very well suited for the practice of learned vocabulary and grammar of the English language. In order to stimulate the game you need to provide prizes - such as sweets, a very good option.

Tuesday, 22 December 2015

United Kingdom

Royal tradition

The tradition of the Royal court most often couched in the form of various ceremonies performed by the Queen and her family.

The opening of Parliament 
Queen officially opens new session of Parliament each year, usually in October or November. She together with the Duke of Edinburgh departs from Buckingham Palace to Westminster in the state coach. Before the Queen and her entourage enter the Parliament building, the Palace guards searched the cellars of the building. This tradition is observed since 1605, when a group of conspirators tried to blow up the houses of Parliament.

Ceremony held at Buckingham Palace 20 times a year. Sometimes they are also conducted in Edinburgh the Palace and outside of the United Kingdom. Every awards show attended by up to 150 candidates, each of which can invite up to three guests. The Queen enters the room, accompanied by two officers. A military of Orkest. The Queen or another member of the Royal family, who conducts the ceremony, standing throughout the awarding procedure, which lasts just over an hour. After the orchestra played the national anthem, the Lord Chamberlain in turn calls the name of each candidate and the reason for which it is awarded. Then the Queen attaches to her chest with the lucky prize and congratulates him. At the ceremony the Queen also dedicates knighthood.

Receptions in the Royal garden 
More than 30 thousand people attend receptions in the Royal garden every year. Is held every summer at least three receptions at Buckingham Palace and one at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. These techniques are carried out from 1860-ies. In the 50 years of the 20th century, the number of receptions in the garden of Buckingham Palace was increased from two to three per year. Sometimes the Queen gives an additional reception in the garden, which is conducted for a large national organization, which celebrates a good round figure , for example, the Red Cross, or, for example, to mark the year of the Disabled. To receive out people from all spheres of society: government, armed forces, diplomatic corps. Invitations are sent by the Lord Chamberlain on behalf of the Queen. At the reception, the timing of which is usually from 4 to 6 PM, there is up to 8 thousand guests.
The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh together with other members of the Royal family walking around among the guests after you play the national anthem of great Britain. Each of the members of the Royal family walking through the garden your way, so each of the guests had the opportunity to be represented and to communicate with Royal personages. During receptions music played on the stage two military orchestra. The Queen and other members of her family, in the end, arrive to the Royal tent, where they drink tea. Also at the reception, I put a separate tent for the diplomatic corps and all other guests. Served tea and sweets. About 6 o'clock in the evening the Royal family leave the garden, and the orchestra plays the national anthem of great Britain again to mark the end of the reception.

Official visits 
The Queen is head of England and the British Commonwealth of Nations. The Ministry of foreign Affairs of the United Kingdom sends out invitations to heads of other States. Usually in the year the Queen receives representatives of foreign States. Each of these visits lasts from Tuesday to Friday, during which the head of a foreign state not only manages to meet the Queen, Prime Minister, Ministers, leaders of political parties and heads of diplomatic missions in London, but also to attend the state Banquet in his honour, to return with their dinner and to spend the day outside of London and Edinburgh, during which he or she meets with other aspects of British life.

Other ceremonies 
Ceremony in memorial day in Whitehall will be held on second Sunday of November, when all the people the Queen pays to give lost in the two world wars and other military conflicts of the twentieth century. The Queen, other members of the Royal family, representatives of the armed forces and leaders of political parties in the country hold two minutes of silence at the monument to the fallen in Whitehall. Then the Queen and all present put wreaths at the monument, followed by a short service, the orchestra plays the national anthem of great Britain and the Queen leaves. War veterans marching past the monument, paying tribute to the fallen. Christmas message the monarch to his people began to broadcast on the radio George V in 1932. Queen Elizabeth II gave his first radio message in 1952 and on TV in 1957. Previously appeals held live, but since 1960 they are written in advance and only broadcast on Christmas day. There is a tradition of almsgiving by the monarch on Maundy Thursday during Holy week. This ceremony is held in one of the cathedrals or abbeys of the country, and money is given to pensioners living in the parish. This tradition originates in the 13th century, when the kings handed the poor and the ill food and clothing, and even washed their feet.

Sunday, 20 December 2015

English today

English today - the second largest population in the world, its dialects, is spoken by more than 400 million people. On this basis, but also because of the extraordinary ease of the study and the brevity of the main words or phrases of English in the 20th century became the language of international communication.

Modern English is a direct descendant of old English, or Anglo-Saxon language, spoken arrived in Britain in the 5th century the Germanic tribes of angles, Saxons and Utes. Modern morphological and phonetic outlines of the language acquired in the XVI century, and based on the London dialect, which created their most wonderful works of Shakespeare and Francis bacon.

English is a classic example of an analytical language, in which grammar is ancient inflectional endings and prefixes play a crucial role word order, prepositions and articles.
But it took a very long time, and it is not surprising that the English language undergoes changes. These changes were made to the articles.

As already mentioned, in modern English has established the concept of the three article: certain the, indefinite a/an and zero (the meaningful absence of the article).

A definite article is inherent value of individualization, it characterizes the subject, as already known, the specific allocated from the entire class of homogeneous items with him. The indefinite article describes the object, the name of which it is associated as one of the representatives, any representatives of a class of objects.

But now you can see that in English magazines, Newspapers, spoken language, and so forth there is a tendency to use the articles are not traditional, classical rules.
In English, the articles have become quite often be omitted, if this does not change the meaning of a sentence. About "Article in English" you can read on this post