Saturday, 5 December 2015


 As between words in a simple sentence and parts of individual phrases in the complex there are certain semantic relationships, and so there they are between sentences in connected text. In the work, anticipating the incarnation of a literary text in sounding speech, the moment of understanding the semantic relations between phrases is an important and necessary part of the work of actor and narrator. Without this it is impossible to convey the meaning of the whole, will remain unclear main idea, the idea of a work or passage. The listener will get tired of the perceptions of individual sentences, even if clearly and accurately expressed in their content, but outside of their semantic relationships with each other. Only "the ability to carry the main idea through a chain of composing her sentences"[23] creates a logical perspective coherent text. Understanding the basic thought of work makes you appreciate the phrase according to their greater or lesser importance for uncovering the main. This makes the speech the actor "so to speak farsighted, not nearsighted -- He can -- not to speak certain phrases, words and whole thoughts and frames"[24].

In a written speech there is a kind of obstacles to determine the intonation of the sound prospects thoughts into coherent text. Such obstacle is the mismatch in many cases grammatical punctuation that separates one sentence from another, intonational expression of the semantic relationships of these phrases. For example, the point in the written text in voiced speech with the promising development of the passage can be replaced by the intonation of a colon, semicolon or other character. Consider a small excerpt:

The fact of the meaning and beauty of the struggle. Life thrashes you, and you now give it back. Well, any fool will live, and you try to live and fight in bad conditions. Yeah don't hide their heads under their wings, as the ostrich, and look life in the face.

In the excerpt of four phrases, and they are all separated by dots. If telling the text to follow the intonation of these signs, the first and second phrase obessmyslivaet quite as well as in their content lies the need to communicate with each other. The presence in the first sentence the words "that" requires that the phrase was either a result of text that could be in front of it, or the contents of it should appear next (second) sentence, and the listener is alerted by the tone of the colon:

"That's the meaning and the beauty of struggle: the life thrashes you, and you now give it back." Leaving in of speech point, we cannot carry this explanatory connection. The semantic relationship between the second and third sentence are in the nature of explanations. Between them is easily inserted the word "because". Thus, the two verses are the second and third serve to reveal wider view of the meaning and beauty of the struggle. To make it easier to convey this in the story between them should sound a semicolon. Finally, the last fourth phrase is an optional enhancement to the third: not only learn to live and fight in nasty ways, but do it with courage. Such a relationship requires replacement of the penultimate semicolon, and the last point, of course, is replaced with an exclamation mark, which is considerably brighter than the approver transmits the energy of thought: meaning and beauty of the struggle in the ability to not give up, be brave and overcome all obstacles. The whole passage after replacing the grammar of signs will look as follows:

"That's the meaning and the beauty of struggle: the life thrashes you, and you now give back somehow; [because] when well, any fool will live, and you try to live and fight in bad conditions, don't hide your head under your wing, like an ostrich, and look life in the face!"

The question naturally arises, why are these characters the author used when writing the passage. The answer to this question is the existing difference between the written speech and oral speech sound. Expressing the main idea of a passage or work a certain number of phrases, the writer regards them as an integral part of a larger building and often for more relief of their differentiation is the point, knowing that the eyes readers can see these boldly separated dot parts in a meaningful coupling with each other. The reader can easily go back to each previous sentence to understand the development of the main idea. The same listening ear perceives it phrase for phrase, and, if the speaker can't carry in a bright intonational expression of semantic relations between them, the listener will lose interest in this speech. It will be presented to him marking time without forward motion, without development.

However, the issue of substitutions of grammatical signs signs that convey a logical perspective of the text, should not lead to the conclusion that ignoring signs of the author. Such a conclusion would be a grave mistake. The punctuation of the original text deserve the most attention and are the main reference points in the semantic analysis of text.

Promising an expression of a thought in a coherent text of speech is impossible without prior thorough analysis and accurate understanding of the semantic relationships between individual phrases.

What can help to identify these links?

After the first reading of the book or passage, it is important to determine its subject. Following a second reading subject to clarifying the main idea develops in the text. Then you should contact the clarification of semantic relations between phrases, placing them in strict accordance with the main idea.

In the process of understanding the interdependence of sentences in the text is useful to insert between adjacent phrases in the questions, the unions and the Union of the word and note the set of semantic relationships relevant punctuation marks, putting them in parentheses next to the characters of the author.

In the art of recitation in the same way as in the work on the role, the definition of semantic relations in many cases can be subjective, depending on the interpretation of the work. But in each case the reciter and the actor has to decide exactly what is the significance of this phrase, explains whether it previous, something opposes said before, or is the result already mentioned. Without promising of expression speech the actor and the reader will not be able to be convincing.

Let's deal in perspective, of a passage from Pushkin's novel "Dubrovsky". Signs to be replaced, we will emphasize; in parenthesis we will put the signs representing semantic relations between the phrases:

But the best joke was honored for kirila Petrovitch next.(:) Hungry bears will lock up, sometimes in an empty room, tied his rope in the ring and screwed into the wall. (,) (The rope was long almost the entire room, so only one opposite corner could be safe from the attack of a fearsome beast). (,) Was brought commonly the beginner to the door of the room, accidentally pushed it to the bear, the door was locked, (—) and the unfortunate victim was left alone with shaggy hermit. (;) Poor guest, with the flap torn and scratched to draw blood, soon sought out a safe corner, but was forced sometimes as much as three hours standing, pressed against the wall, and see how enraged the beast is two steps away from him, roared, jumped, reared, rushed and tried to reach out to him. (—) These were noble amusements of a Russian barin!

The theme of the passage: Barsky fun Troyekurov. Look at the perspective of this passage. The first two phrases are connected by an explanatory relationship. The attention of the listener after the first phrase focuses on the description of the details of the "jokes" Troyekurov, and it is natural there should sound the tone of the colon. The third sentence conveys a very important detail in the room with the bear, but it drops out of the list of details in the description, therefore, should be regarded as introductory, and we conclude it in brackets followed by a comma. The enumeration ends with the phrase: "the unfortunate victim was left alone with the hairy hermit". The comma in front of it does not convey the entire extent of the expression, which is contained in these words. Therefore, it should be replaced with performing this function with dash: "the door was locked — and the unfortunate victim was left alone with the hairy hermit". Then follows a phrase that felt a guest in this situation, and hence the voice after the word "desert" can't go to the final story reduction, and a writing point in an oral story is replaced by a semicolon. In the next sentence, in contrast with the relative security of the poor guest and his terrible visual impressions. Psychological capacity deepens their last sentence that the author ends with an exclamation mark: "those were the amusement of a noble Russian gentleman!" The expression of indignation, accumulated in a consecutive narrative, here finds its completion.
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